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Bench Mark Testing Login
Due Date: 11/17/2016
Subject: Chemistry

Benchmarks and performance Matters

login info is their s# and password is ozark123

Fingerprinting On-line Activity(Test Study Guide)
Due Date: 5/1/2015
Subject: Forensic Science

Name: _____________________________                                     Period: _______

Test on Monday, 4 May 2015

Study ALL Fingerprint notes taken druing class.  Study all information listed below. This is you Study Guide.



a)      Log into a computer

b)      Go to

c)      Click on “Launch site”

d)      Click “Chapter 6” (along left side)

e)      Click on “InterActivity”


Assignment #1:

Write down the steps you followed to collect a latent fingerprint (be specific).


Assignment #2:

a)      Go back to the Chapter 6 page

b)      click on “Crossword”

c)      Complete the crossword (you can use your ebook)

d)      Once completed, have the instructor sign off that you finished __________________



Assignment #3:

1)      Go the following website:

2)      Read through the article and complete the questions below.


“Fingerprinting's Reliability Draws Growing Court Challenges”

1.      Which newspaper is this article from?

2.      What do you think they mean by “junk science”?

3.      What often happens to latent prints that can make them hard to read?

4.      What year was fingerprinting accepted as a part of the criminal justice system?

5.      After two product liability suits (Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals in 1993 and Kumho Tire Company v. Carmichael in 1999), what did the Supreme Court declare?

6.      Why are fingerprints more useful than DNA testing?

7.      On a 1995 proficiency test of 156 examiners conducted with the approval of the International Association of Identification, __________ in five examiners made at least one "_____________________________" identification.

8.      In your opinion, is fingerprinting analysis reliable? (use complete sentences, minimum of 5, to answer this question)




Due Date: 3/8/2015
Subject: Chemistry

Visit the following website.

1.  Read and summarizes the background and carrying out paper chromatography.

2.  Go down to the Rf Values.  Read and calculate the Rf values for each of your colors.  If you did not use black ink get the chromatography results from another group, not their calculations. 

3.  Draw the essential structure of paper.

4.  Read and summarize Paper chromatography using a water and other polar solvents.

Water Quality
Due Date: 3/3/2015
Subject: Environmental Science

Water quality questions

Please read the information found in this web site. Answer the following questions


1.       Compare temperature and amount of dissolved Oxygen. Explain the effects of temperature on dissolved Oxygen.

2.       What type of water contains large amounts of dissolved Oxygen?

3.       What aquatic organism needs dissolved oxygen? Be sure to name them.

4.       What is eutrophication?

5.       What is the purpose of free ions in water?

6.       Explain why electrocution in sea water is less than it would be in bath water.

7.       Explain why water is a universal solvent?

8.       Why is dissolved Oxygen measurements Important?

9.       What is the amount of dissolved Oxygen found in water? How is it measured; give units of measured?

AP Environmental Science Chapter 11- Soils
Due Date: 11/3/2014
Subject: Environmental Science

See class slide for insturctions.

4 November 14

Answer the following questions regarding soil. Turn in before leaving class.

1. Describe the position, composition, and ecological function of each horizon in a soil profile.

2. Explain the components and properties of soil texture.

3. Classify the important soil nutrients, and describe how their availability to plants is controlled by soil pH.

4. Discuss how agricultural practices encourage erosion and salinization and contribute to soil degradation.

5. Outline the methods, benefits, and drawbacks of common soil conservation strategies.

Visit the following website.

Read/study this information. Provide answers to the questions listed above.

Forensics Investigation
Due Date: 10/2/2014
Subject: Forensic Science


Go to the URL below, complete all items listed under the Recovery Tab.  Be sure to take notes on all topics.  Each topic is testable.

Forensics Investigation
Due Date: 10/2/2014
Subject: Forensic Science


Go to the URL below, complete all items listed under the Recovery Tab.  Be sure to take notes on all topics.  Each topic is testable.

Pesticide Video Webquest
Due Date: 9/12/2014
Subject: Environmental Science

Go to:
APES in a BOX Collection

AP* Environmental Science Review

View each film listed below and describe details regarding each topic.

Please include the following:  Identify problem areas and the root causes

                                           Describe all actions taken to resolve these problems

                                           For the Environemtal Law Film, you must take all of those notes

Video Topics:  Environmental Law

                     Pesticides, Hazards, and Bears, oh my

                     Biological Pest Contron

                     Integrated Pest management





Handwriting Analysis
Due Date: 9/9/2014
Subject: Forensic Science

Read through the three lessons listed at this website. Write a one page summary about your partner.

How to Begin

When analyzing writing style, first look at the handwriting in general, much like you would a painting. Make mental notes of the most outstanding traits and try to get a general feeling of the write. Then, determine the emotional energy of the writer. This is the most important factor of the personality of the writer.

The emotional energy has a direct impact on every other trait displayed in the handwriting. Emotional energy is determined by how much pressure the writer uses when he writes. If you examine the writing you can determine how much pressure was used by how "dark" the writing is. Also, if you turn the page over and feel the underside you can feel how much pressure was used (especially if the sample was written on a soft surface).

Include the following in your paragraphs:

1. Emotional energy

2. Slants of the writing

3. Visit and read the putting it together section; this will help in writing your summary.

4. Looking into Emotional Control, Reliability and Concentration.


Using these characteristics, write a one page summary about you partner's personnality. 

Be sure to identify the various types of handwriting

Ionic and Covalent Bonding
Due Date: 4/30/2014
Subject: Chemistry

Honors Chemistry Class Assignment 30 April 14

View the following bonding videos. Take notes as needed for thorough understanding.

1.       Ionic and covalent bonding animation video


2.       Ionic Bonding Introduction


3.       Ionic Bonding Part 2


4.       Ionic Bonding Part 3


5.       Polar and Non-Polar Covalent Bonds


Earth's Water Resources
Due Date: 4/14/2014
Subject: Environmental Science

Earth's Water Resources

Chapter 3 Hair Analysis
Due Date: 4/3/2014
Subject: Forensic Science

Marine Ecosystems WebQuest
Due Date: 4/2/2014
Subject: Environmental Science

Marine Ecosystems WebQuest

Go to:



Go to Under the Marine Ecosystems click “Shorelines”. Answer the following questions below on your own paper or type them in a word document. You will have to find your answers throughout the links on the left-hand side of the screen.


  1. What is intertidal zone?
  2. How much does the intertidal zone drop on rocky      shores?
  3. List 8 different marine life found in tidal pools.
  4. What is the definition of estuary?
  5. Describe the relationship of an estuary and the tide.
  6. What causes the tidal motion?
  7. What are the different types of tides? (4)
  8. How are waves energy?
  9. Where do waves get their energy?
  10. What determines the speed of a wave?


Go to Under the Marine Ecosystems click “Temperate Ocean”. Answer the following questions below on your own paper or type them in a word document. You will have to find your answers throughout the links on the left-hand side of the screen.


  1. How far does light penetrate the ocean?
  2. List the types of ocean zonation? (Only the arrowed      one’s)
  3. How deep is the Marianas Trench?
  4. How many parts per million of sodium?
  5. How deep is the Arctic Ocean in feet?
  6. Describe how the ocean refreshes its self?
  7. How much fish do we get from the ocean in percentage?




Go to Under the Marine Ecosystems click “Tropical Ocean”. Answer the following questions below on your own paper or type them in a word document. You will have to find your answers throughout the links on the left-hand side of the screen.


  1. What is a coral reef?
  2. What are 4 reasons coral reefs are disappearing?
  3. Define adaptation.
  4. List 3 types of invertebrate sea life?
  5. Of the fish listed which is the smallest and which is      the largest?
  6. Tell 2 place to find coral reefs?
  7. Give a few examples on how to protect coral reefs for      future generations?


Honors Chemistry 3rd 9 Weeks Exam Study Guide
Due Date: 3/11/2014
Subject: Chemistry

Honors Chemistry

3rd 9 Weeks Exam Study Guide

1. Study the metric system prefixes

2. Convert units of measurements (kilo to grams)

a.  How many meters are there in 1, 865 cm

b. A beaker contains 0.32 L of water. What is the volume of this water in milliliters?

3. Describe the differences between independent and dependent variables.

4. Why should a control be used in an experiment?

5. Describe the 4 phases of matter.

6. Describe mixtures (homogeneous and heterogeneous)

7. Describe the works of :

a.  Democritus

b. J.J. Thomson

c.   Rutherford

d. Bohr

e.  Dalton

8. Describe the parts of the atom.

9. Determine the location of electrons in the electron cloud.

10. Who is Mendeleev? What was his contribution to science?

11. Describe the arrangements of elements in the periodic table.



Forensic Science Study Guide (second posting)
Due Date: 1/10/2014
Subject: Forensic Science

Forensic Study Guide 2014(Second posting)

Created by students

1. Name 2 of the items that may be at autopsy?

Victim's Clothing, Head and Pubic Hairs

2. A lead investigator will start the process by ___________ the area?


3. What is one of the things that they must identify at the crime scene?

The time an item of physical was discovered

4. Bloodstained materials must be packaged in what?

 Wrapping paper, manila envelopes or paper bags

5. Why must bloodstained materials be packaged?

Prevents mold growth; which can destroy the evidential value of the blood.

6. What are the 2 types of sketches?

Rough and finished

7. What are some items that may be removed at an autopsy?

Victim's clothing , fingernail clipping , head and pubic hair, blood, vaginal anal and oral swabs, recovered bullets from the body, hand swabs from shooting victims

8. How do you secure and isolate the crime scene?

Seeing if anyone needs medical assistance, arresting the perpetrator, Barricades, ropes, police tape, and police guards

9. What are some of the steps for submitting evidence to the laboratory?

Mail shipment or personal delivery

10. What are some health hazards that can exists at a crime scene? Aids and hepatitis b

11. What must bloodstained materials be packaged in? Why?

Wrapping paper, manila envelopes, or paper bags; to prevent the growth of mold that can destroy the evidential value of the blood.

12. What is a "druggist fold"?

A sheet of paper folded and used to package small amounts of trace evidence.

13. What is the minimum that evidence should be tagged with?

The collector's initials, date of collection, and location of the evidence.

14. What did Arizona deal with in the case of Mincey v. Arizona?

The legality of a four-day search at a homicide; the police on the scene conducted the search without a warrant.

15. In what cases can a warrant-less search be conducted?

Conducted under extreme circumstances (danger to life or limb), if there is immediate danger of the loss or destruction of evidence, if there is a problem cause, with the consent of the involved parties.

16. What is physical evidence?

A. is any and all objects that can establish that a crime has been committed or can provide a link between a crime and its victim or a crime and its perpetrator.

17. What is the next step in recording a crime scene after photography?

A. sketching the scene

18 .How should you collect and package physical evidence

A. each different item or similar items collected at different locations must be placed in separate containers.

19. What does chain of custody mean?

A. a list of all persons who came into possession of an item of evidence

20. When any type of evidence is examined it must be compared to what?

A. A known reference / standard sample.

21. What must the first officer to arrive at the crime scene do?

(Secure the crime scene, see if anyone needs medical assistance, and arrest the perpetrator)

22. A draft representation of all essential information and measurements at a crime scene is defined as a _________. (Rough sketch)

23. What are some items that could be removed at autopsy?

(Victim's clothing; fingernail scrapings; head and pubic hairs; blood for DNA typing purposes; Vaginal, anal, and oral swabs in sex related crimes; recovered bullets from the body; hand swabs from shooting victims for gunshot residue analysis)

24. Define chain of custody.

(A list of all persons who came into possession of an item of evidence)

25. __________ must be taken constantly as the crime scene is processed, and must include a detailed written description of everything at the crime scene.



Physical Science Study Guide
Due Date: 12/19/2013
Subject: Chemistry

Physical Science Study Guide                                                                                                         18 Dec 13

Created by Students


  1. What makes water such a good solvent? Why water is is a good solvent.

    • Water is called universal solvent because more substances dissolve than in any other chemical. This has to do with the polarity of each water molecule

2. What are triple covalent bonds?

    • Triple Covalent Bonds- A triple covalent bond is the sharing of  six electrons between two atoms

3. What is coordinate covalent bond?

    • A coordinate covalent bond -occurs when one atom contributes both electrons for a covalent bond.

4. What are insulators?

    • Insulator-poor conductors. Wood, plastic handles. Doesn't conductor heat well?

5. What are 3 types of energy?

    • Kinetic, heat, chemical.

6. What is it called when electrons hook together?  

    • Chemical         Reaction


7. What is a Physical Change?

    • crash, mash, tear, slice


8. What is the Conservation of Mass?

    • Matter cannot be created nor destroyed so there must be the same number of atoms on each side of the equations.

9. Is an endothermic reaction cold or hot when touched?

    •  Cold.

10. Is an exothermic reaction cold or hot when touched?

    •  Hot.

11. True or False: Matter can't be created nor destroyed but can be combined.

    •  true

12. What is a physical change?

    •  A change that alters the form of a substance but not the chemical makeup of the substance, a change of state

13. True or false: Some reactions release energy in a form of heat.

    • True

14. True or false: When a chemical change forms it completely changes the product and the way it works.

    • True

15. What is a concentrated solution?

    •  A solution where a solute is more present.


16. Describe Ionic Bonding and Covalent Bonding?


    • Ionic Bonding is the loss/gain of electrons between atoms. Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons between atoms.

17. What is the difference between endothermic and exothermic?

    • Endothermic reaction cold when touched. Exothermic reaction hot when touched.

18. What is Balancing Equations?

    •  Matter that cannot be created or destroyed.

19. What is different between heat and temperature?

    • Heat is the flow of thermal energy from one place to another. Temperature is the amount of is the measure of how fast the molecules of the substance on average is moving.

20.  Study the lab handout provided by your teacher.  Define all Italicized words.  Be sure you understand how factors affecting crystal growth.  Explain the type of bonding in sodium borate and the formation of its crystals. 

Forensic Science Fingerprint Group Activity
Due Date: 12/11/2013
Subject: Forensic Science

Forensic Science Group Activity

(2 per Group)

Chapter 14: Fingerprints Question Worksheet

1. Historical Development of Fingerprints: Create a “time line” on the solid line below for all 10 significant entries


2. What is a good way to describe a fingerprint? Do Identical Twins have identical fingerprints?

3. How does a fingerprint form? When?


4. What are the three general fingerprint distinctions and what are there percentage?

A.                       B.                       C.



5. What is a core?


6. What is a Delta?

7 What is a ridge count?


8. What are the two types of arch patterns: Explain the difference:





9. What are the three types of whorl patterns: Explain the difference:





10. What are minutiae? Name three types:



11. There are three types of fingerprints describe each:







12. Summarize the answers of slide 12 of this PowerPoint

13. Refer to Chapter 14 Fingerprints Packet.

Answer the following Questions:

1-10, 12, 16, 25, 26-35, 37, 39 and 40

Environmental Science Research Project 2
Due Date: 12/11/2013
Subject: Environmental Science

Environmental Research Topics-2

The web site below is your primary source for topic background information

Research Projects     Due date 11 Dec 2013   Rubrics will be provided.


As a minimum your research paper and presentation should address:

      Laws and Regulation



    Policy and Guidance


Explain how your topic impacts the watershed. Please use examples.





Instructions for Project Summary Submission and Presentation:

No more than 2 students working together. Topics have been assigned.


„X             Project summaries must be double-spaced and typed and be at least 2 full pages in length


„X             Project submissions must relate to the particular subject we are covering in class.


„X             The submission must summarize the materials in your own words. If you are found to cut and paste an article, NO CREDIT WILL BE GIVEN!


„X             Be sure to reference you topics. References must be included with the summary for credit.


„X             Sources used in summaries must be cited using an appropriate format. If you retrieve an article from the Internet, you must site the entire web address.


„X             The submission must include a paragraph about what you learned from the article and how it relates to the concepts we are studying in class.


„X             Projects must be submitted on time –

Grading Breakdown of Article Summaries and Presentations:


„X             Full credit will be given for articles that meet the requirements for submission.


„X             NO CREDIT will be given to a student who submits a summary that has been copied from the original source. (DO NOT cut and paste)


„X             Ten points will be deducted from the grade if the paragraph relating the article to concepts taught in class and what you learned from the article is not included.


„X             NO CREDIT will be given to submissions that do not include correct reference.


„X             Grammatical & typographic errors will deduct from the grade (5-10 points)

                A clear and well prepared power point presentation to the class is required for FULL CREDIT.



Watersheds in Alabama
Due Date: 11/22/2013
Subject: Chemistry

Under each topic, be sure to read and summarize the questions listed and the topics.

Common Types of Physical Evidence
Due Date: 9/18/2013
Subject: Forensic Science



Select one of the common types of Physical Evidence topics and prepare a class presentation. Check chapter 3 (Physical Evidence) packets in the front of the class

1.       Prepare a power point presentation.

2.       Two pages typed report, font (type/size) times- new roman (12).

3.       Please include a reference page.

Read and answer questions 1-13 pages 74-75, Chapter 3 Physical Evidence Packet.  

LL Split Assignment
Due Date: 9/11/2013
Subject: Chemistry

Week 4, day 2 (LL Split)                                                   10 Sept 13

Environmental Science Library Assignment

1.   Use the Environmental Science Book to complete the graphic organizer. 

2.   Mark through the directions found at the top of graphic organizer handout, with the following column topics: (Temperate, Desert, Aquatic, Rain Forest, Arctic)

3.   Substitute with:  Use chapter 6 and the textbook index to complete the chart.

Directions for the Comparison Table:

1.   Chapter 1 in your book provides information needed to complete the Comparison Table.  Don’t forget to write your essay. Essay directions are located at the bottom of the Comparison Table handout.

2.   Answer questions 28-31, page 166.

Ecological Footprint Activity
Due Date: 9/9/2013
Subject: Chemistry



Ecological Footprint Activity



1.  Go to this website:

2.  Under Footprint Basics, read Introduction and Overview.  Then define ecological footprint in your own words.  What does it actually measure?


3.  Under Footprint Basics, go to Personal Footprint and take the ecological footprint quiz for yourself.  Enter as a new user, create your avatar and always enter the more detailed information.


4.  Record your ecological footprint.

a.       How many planet Earth’s would be required if everyone lived like you?  _______

b.      Break down your ecological footprint:

         ____% Food   ____% Shelter   ____% Mobility   ____% Goods   ____% Services

c.       How many global acres of the Earth’s productive area do you require? _______

d.      Put the following in order from most land used to least land used: energy land, crop land, grazing land, forest land, built up land, fishing grounds


e.      How many tons of carbon dioxide do you generate?  ________   The Earth can absorb some of our carbon dioxide (do you know how?), but not at the rate we are producing it now.  So, the fewer tons you personally produce, the better.  We will study this more later.

5.  Click on “edit your footprint.” Only make changes that you can actually make in your life. For example, do not change your house since your parents/guardians would not approve it. Instead, change your recycling habits or food intake.   

          a.   How low can you get your footprint to be?  Record it here:  _________     

          b.   List five things that you can do to make your footprint lower. 


6.  Click on “explore scenarios.”  Click on the checkboxes one at a time.

          a.   How do the listed activities affect your ecological footprint in terms of the number of planet Earth’s needed?


          b. If every American did only one of these activities, which would be the most effective in reducing our           ecological footprint?



          c.   Could you commit to doing one or more of these activities? If so, which one(s)? If not, why?



Reflection Questions:

1.       We will gather data from everyone in the class concerning their footprint in global acres. 

a.       What is the total footprint of the class?


b.      What is the average footprint of the class?



c.       How does this compare to the average American’s footprint (23.7 global acres/person)?


d.      Biocapacity is the capacity of an area to provide resources and absorb wastes.  The total biocapacity of the Earth is estimated to be 4.4 global acres/person.  Is our class running an ecological deficit or an ecological surplus?


2.       Think about the fairness of world land use.  The U.S. has an ecological footprint of 23.7 acres per person while the 35 low-income countries average 2.0 acres per person.

a.       Why do you think the average ecological footprint is so much higher in the U.S. than developing countries?



b.      Do you think there should be laws governing how large a country’s or individual’s ecological footprint?  Explain. 



3.       Sustainability is an important concept in Environmental Science.  It means that resources are not being used up faster than they can be replenished, and that wastes are not being produced faster than they can be processed by the earth. 

a.       Are Americans living a sustainable lifestyle? 



b.      Are YOU living a sustainable lifestyle?


c.         How will this affect future Americans?  How will this affect the world? Explain. 



4. According to the Footprint Network, “Earth Overshoot Day marks an unfortunate milestone: the day in which we exhaust our ecological budget for the year. Once we pass this day [each year], humanity will have demanded all the ecological services – from filtering CO2 to producing the raw materials for food – that nature can provide this year. From that point until the end of the year, we meet our ecological demand by liquidating resource stocks and accumulating carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.”  The Earth first experienced overshoot on December 19, 1987.  In 2007, overshoot day occurred on October 6, 2007.    

Use the following formula to calculate overshoot day:


            [ world biocapacity / ecological footprint ] x 365 = Ecological Debt Day


(If the Ecological Debt Day is calculated to be Day 10, then that is January 10th.  For October 6, 2007, the 279th day of the year, the Ecological Debt Day was Day 279.)


a.  When is overshoot day for the world? (world biocapacity=4.4 global acres/person; ecological footprint =5.5)



b.  When is overshoot day for the U.S.? (U.S. biocapacity= 11.7 global acres/person; US ecological

footprint =23.7)




c.                   When is overshoot day for our class? (U.S. biocapacity=11.7 global acres/person; class ecological footprint=answer to reflection question 1b)



d. How does overshooting our ecological resources negatively affect the planet in the present day? How do you think it will affect our planet in future generations?



Reading Comprehension
Due Date: 9/3/2013
Subject: Chemistry

Reading Comprehension Activity. Prep for Friday's test.  

1.  Select the following URL

2.  SELECT THE TOPIC: The Scientific Method in the Lab*. 

3.  Read this passage and select the correct answers. Be sure to study these topics along with your notes in preparation for Friday's test.   

4.  Do the same for this topic: Atomic History*

5.  Complete this prior to leaving class

Environmental Science
Due Date: 9/3/2013
Subject: Chemistry

Learn About Chemicals Around Your House


Select the website listed below.  Include these in your notes (common types of pesticides, and their purposes)

Describe the chemical compound and elements found in at least 5 of these.

Forensics Historic Time-Line
Due Date: 8/26/2013
Subject: Forensic Science

Build a History of Forensics Time-Line

You and your partner will create your portion of the forensics time-line.  Based on the dates and Titles listed below each team of students will select a title, research and provide the significant contribution/ impact this discovery had on Forensics Science. Your must provide the Following:  

1. Date of discovery

2. Identify the person(s) responsible. One page background description of those involved in the discovery.

3. The area of forensics impacted

4. One page background information 

5. Find a picture of the event.

6. Be sure to include your references. Minimum 3



Sung Tzu

Mathieu Orfilu

Alphonse Bertillon

Sir Fancis Galton

Edmond Locard

Luke May 

Comparison Microscope

Fanz Holzer

Walter Specth

Max Frei-Sulzer

Lip Print Identity Study

Gunshot Residue

Sir Alec Jefferys

Gel Electrophoresis
Due Date: 3/12/2013
Subject: Forensic Science

Electrophoresis Activity

Write the following questions

1. How do you sort and measure DNA Strands?

2.  Describe this process in number 1.

3.  Explain the movements of short, medium, and long DNA Strands.

4.  Why is staining important

5.  Go to the following site, read and answer questions 1-4.  Complete the Virtual Lab

The History of Fingerprints
Due Date: 2/21/2013
Subject: Forensic Science

Instructions: (Read directions below and on your handout, then go to the website)


1.  Go to the assigned website.


2.  Select the History Tab and click on the first flashlight with the title "History."

3.  Read and summarize the information found on "Why fingerprint Identification

4.  On the handout provided by the teacher,  build a fingerprint history timeline.  Include the dates, important names, and a two sentence description of the timeline event.

Forensics Fingerprint Timeline
Due Date: 2/21/2013
Subject: Forensic Science

Instructions: (Read directions below and on your handout, then go to the website)


1.  Go to the assigned website.


2.  Select the History Tab and click on the first flashlight with the title "History."

3.  Read and summarize the information found on "Why fingerprint Identification

4.  On the handout provided by the teacher,  build a fingerprint history timeline.  Include the dates, important names, and a two sentence description of the timeline event.

Forensic Science Hair and Fiber Analysis Web Search
Due Date: 2/12/2013
Subject: Forensic Science

Directions:  Go to the following websites and complete the questions on your handout (Forensic Science Hair and Fiber Analysis Web Search)

1.  Hair:



2.  Fiber:  

Go down to the document section, click on Introduction to Forensic Fiber Examination. 



Drug Characteristics
Due Date: 12/14/2012
Subject: Forensic Science


Chapter 5

Check your drug note and ensure that you have these notes include. 



A drug can be defined as a natural or synthetic substance that is used to produce physiological or psychological effects in humans or other higher order animals.

Narcotic drugs are analgesics, meaning they relieve pain by a depressing action on the      central nervous system. This effects functions such as blood pressure, pulse rate and breathing rate.

The regular use of a narcotic drug will invariably lead to physical dependence.

The most common source for these narcotic drugs is opium, extracted from poppies.



Morphine is readily extracted from opium and is used to synthesize heroin.

Addicts frequently dissolve heroin in water by heating it in a spoon, and then inject in     the skin.

Heroin produces a “high” that is accompanied by drowsiness and a sense of well-being    that generally last for three to four hours.

Codeine is also present in opium, but it is usually prepared synthetically from morphine.


Other Opiates

OxyContin, with the active ingredient oxycodone, is not derived from opium or   morphine, but does have the same physiological effects on the body as do opium          narcotics.

OxyContin is prescribed to a million patients for treatment of chronic pain.

Methadone is another well-known synthetic opiate.

Methadone, which is pharmacologically related to heroin, appears to eliminate the            addict’s desire for heroin while producing minimal side effects.



Another class of drugs is hallucinogens; marijuana is the most well-known member of      this class.

Hallucinogens cause marked changes in normal thought processes, perceptions, and         moods.

Marijuana is the most controversial drug in this class because its long-term effects on       health are still largely unknown.



Marijuana refers to a preparation derived from the plant Cannabis.

The chemical substance largely responsible for the hallucinogenic properties of      marijuana is known as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC.

The THC content of Cannabis varies in different parts of the plant, generally decreasing in the following sequence: resin, flowers, leaves, with little THC in the stem,     roots or seeds.

The THC-rich resin is known as hashish.

Marijuana does not cause physical dependency, but the risk of harm is in heavy, long-      term use.


Other Hallucinogens

Other hallucinogens include LSD, mescaline, PCP, psilocybin, and MDMA (Ecstasy).

LSD is synthesized from lysergic acid, and can cause hallucinations that can last for 12    hours.

Phencyclidine, or PCP, is often synthesized in clandestine laboratories and is often          smoked, ingested, sniffed.

Phencyclidine is often mixed with other drugs, such as LSD, or amphetamine, and is       sold as a powder (“angel dust”), capsule, or tablet.

Oral intake of PCP first leads to feelings of strength and invulnerability, which may turn             to depression, tendencies toward violence, and suicide.



Depressants are another class of drugs.

Depressants are substances used to depress the functions of the central nervous system.

Depressants calm irritability and anxiety and may induce sleep.

These include alcohol (ethanol), barbiturates, tranquilizers, and various substances that     can be sniffed, such as airplane glue, model cement, or aerosol gas propellants         such as freon.

Alcohol (ethyl alcohol) enters the body’s bloodstream and quickly travels to the brain,     where it acts to suppress the brain’s control of thought processes and muscle coordination.

Barbiturates, or “downers,” are normally taken orally and create a feeling of well-being,   relax the body, and produce sleep.

Tranquilizers, unlike barbiturates, produce a relaxing tranquility without impairment of     high-thinking faculties or inducing sleep.

Sniffing has immediate effects such as exhilaration, but impairs judgment and may          cause liver, heart, and brain damage, or even death.  



The drug classification of stimulants includes amphetamines, sometimes known as           “uppers” or “speed,” and cocaine, which in its free-base form is known as crack.

Stimulants are substances taken to increase alertness or activity, followed by a decrease   in fatigue and a loss of appetite.

Amphetamine and methamphetamine, often injected intravenously, cause an initial           “rush,” followed by an intense feeling of pleasure.

This is followed by a period of exhaustion and a prolonged period of depression.

Cocaine, extracted from the leaves of Erythroxylin coca, causes increased alertness and   vigor, accompanied by the suppression of hunger, fatigue, and boredom.

Crack is cocaine mixed with baking soda and water, then heated.

Crack is often smoked in glass pipes, and like cocaine stimulates the brain’s pleasure        center.


Club Drugs

The term club drugs refers to synthetic drugs that are used at nightclubs, bars, and raves (all-night dance parties).

Substances that are often used as club drugs include, but are not limited to, MDMA        (Ecstasy), GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), Rohypnol (“Roofies”), ketamine, and      methamphetamine.

GHB and Rohypnol are central nervous system depressants that are often connected       with drug-facilitated sexual assault, rape, and robbery.

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA or Ecstasy, is a synthetic        mind-altering drug that exhibits many hallucinogenic and amphetamine-like effects.

Ecstasy enhances self-awareness and decreases inhibitions, however, seizures, muscle      breakdown, stroke, kidney failure, and cardiovascular system failure often         accompany chronic abuse.

Ketamine is primarily used as a veterinary animal anesthetic that in humans causes            euphoria and hallucinations.

Ketamine can also cause impaired motor functions, high blood pressure, amnesia, and      mild respiratory depression.


Anabolic Steroids

Yet another category of drugs is the anabolic steroids.

These are synthetic compounds that are chemically related to the male sex hormone         testosterone.

Anabolic steroids are often abused by individuals who are interested in accelerating         muscle growth.

Side effects include unpredictable effects on mood and personality, depression,   diminished sex drive, halting bone growth, and liver cancer.


Drug-Control Laws

TheU.S. federal law known as the Controlled Substances Act control drug abuse.

This federal law establishes five schedules of classification will serve to illustrate a           legal drug-classification system created to prevent and for controlling dangerous       substances on the basis of a drug’s

potential for abuse

potential for physical and psychological dependence

medical value






Schedules of Classification

Schedule I drugs have a high potential for abuse and have no currently accepted medical             use such as heroin, marijuana, methaqualone, and LSD.

Schedule II drugs have a high potential for abuse and have medical use with severe         restrictions such as cocaine, PCP, and most amphetamine and barbiturate           prescriptions.

Schedule III drugs have less potential for abuse and a currently accepted medical use      such as all barbiturate prescriptions not covered under Schedule II, such as            codeine and anabolic steroids.

Schedule IV drugs have a low potential for abuse and have a current medical use such as            darvon, phenobarbital, and some tranquilizers such as diazepam (valium) and           chlordiazepoxide (librium).


Schedule V drugs must show low abuse potential and have medical use such as opiate     drug mixtures that contain nonnarcotic medicinal ingredients.


Drug Identification

The challenge or difficulty of forensic drug identification comes in selecting analytical    procedures that will ensure a specific identification of a drug.

This plan, or scheme of analysis, is divided into two phases.

Screening test that is nonspecific and preliminary in nature to reduce the possibilities to   a manageable number.

Confirmation test that is a single test that specifically identifies a substance.


Preliminary Analysis

Faced with the prospect that the unknown substance may be any one of a thousand or     more commonly encountered drugs, the analyst must employ screening tests to         reduce these possibilities to a small and manageable number.

This objective is often accomplished by subjecting the material to a series of color tests    that will produce characteristic colors for the more commonly encountered illicit        drugs.

Microcrystalline tests can also be used to identify specific drug substances by studying    the size and shape of crystals formed when the drug is mixed with specific           reagents.


Conformational Determination

Once this preliminary analysis is completed, a conformational determination is pursued.

Forensic chemists will employ a specific test to identify a drug substance to the    exclusion of all other known chemical substances.

Typically infrared spectrophotometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is used   to specifically identify a drug substance.





Qualitative vs. Quantitative

Another consideration in selecting an analytical technique is the need for either a             qualitative or a quantitative determination.

The former relates just to the identity of the material, whereas the latter requires the         determination of the percent composition of the components of a mixture.



Chromatography is a means of separating and tentatively identifying the components of a mixture.

The theory of chromatography is based on the observation that chemical substances have             a tendency to partially escape into the surrounding environment when dissolved in           a liquid or when absorbed on a solid surface.

Those materials that have a preference for the moving phase will slowly pull ahead and    separate from those substances that prefer to remain in the stationary phase.  



TLC uses a solid stationary phase usually coated onto a glass plate and a mobile liquid     phase to separate the components of the mixture.

The liquid will slowly rise up the plate by capillary action causing the sample to become   distributed between the stationary phase and the moving liquid phase.

Because most compounds are colorless, the materials must be visualized by placing the    plates under ultraviolet light or spraying the plate with a chemical reagent.

The distance a spot travels up a thin-layer plate can be assigned a numerical value             known as the Rf value.


Gas Chromatography

In GC, the moving phase is actually a gas called the carrier gas, which flows through a    column.

The stationary phase is a thin film of liquid contained within the column.

After a mixture has traversed the length of the column, it will emerge separated into its   components.

The written record of this separation is called a chromatogram.

The time required for a component to emerge from a GC column is known as retention    time.



Just as a substance can absorb visible light to produce color, many of the invisible            radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum are likewise absorbed.

Spectrophotometry, an important analytical tool, measures the quantity of radiation that a particular material absorbs as a function of wavelength and frequency.

The quantity of light absorbed at any frequency is directly proportional to the       concentration of the absorbing species. This is known as Beer’s Law.

UVand IR Spectrophotometry

Currently, most forensic laboratories use UV and IR spectrophotometers to characterize chemical compounds.

The simplicity of the UV spectrum facilitates its use as a tool for determining a     material’s probable identity, although it may not provide a definitive result.

The IR spectrum provides a far more complex pattern.

Different materials always have distinctively different infrared spectra; each IR   spectrum is therefore equivalent to a “fingerprint” of that substance.


The Spectrophotometer

The spectrophotometer is the instrument used to measure and record the absorption         spectrum of a chemical substance.

The components of a spectrophotometer are:

A radiation source

A monochromator or frequency selector

A sample holder

A detector to convert electromagnetic radiation into an electrical signal

A recorder to produce a record of the signal

Absorption spectra can be done in the visible, ultraviolet (UV) or infrared (IR) regions.


Mass Spectrometry

In the mass spectrometer, a beam of high-energy electrons collide with a material,            producing positively charged ions.

These positive ions almost instantaneously decompose into numerous fragments, which   are separated according to their masses.

The unique feature of mass spectrometry is that under carefully controlled conditions, no            two substances produce the same fragmentation pattern.


GC and Mass

A direct connection between the GC column and the mass spectrometer allows each        component to flow into the mass spectrometer as it emerges from the GC.

The separation of a mixture’s components is first accomplished by the GC.

Then, fragmentation of each component by high-energy electrons in the mass       spectrometer, will produce a distinct pattern, somewhat like a “fingerprint”, of the           substance being examined.


Collection and Preservation

The field investigator has the responsibility of ensuring that the evidence is properly         packaged and labeled for the laboratory.

Generally common sense is the best guide, keeping in mind that the package must            prevent the loss of the contents and/or cross-contamination.

Often the original container in which the drug was seized will suffice.

All packages must be marked with information that is sufficient to ensure identification   by the officer in the future and establish the chain of custody.


Fingerprinting Lecture
Due Date: 12/10/2012
Subject: Forensic Science

While viewing this power point presentation on Fingerprinting, be sure to highlight your fingerprint sheet showing the three main pattern types (Loops, Arches, and Whorls).  It is equally important to identify and highlight the "Beyond the pattern" features. 

Be sure to get a fingerprinting sheet from Mr. Austin before viewing.  Copy all written information into your notebook. 

Website: Go back to my name and click on Links.